OBJECTIVE: Workplace-based employee health promotion programs often target weight loss or physical activity, yet there is growing attention to sleep as it affects employee health and performance. The goal of this review is to systematically examine workplace-based employee health interventions that measure sleep duration as an outcome.
DATA SOURCE: We conducted systematic searches in PubMed, Web of Knowledge, EMBASE, Scopus, and PsycINFO (n = 6177 records).
STUDY INCLUSION AND EXCLUSION CRITERIA: To be included in this systematic review, studies must include (1) individuals aged >18 years, (2) a worker health-related intervention, (3) an employee population, and (4) sleep duration as a primary or secondary outcome.
RESULTS: Twenty studies met criteria. Mean health promotion program duration was 2.0 months (standard deviation [SD] = 1.3), and mean follow-up was 5.6 months (SD = 6.5). The mean sample size of 395 employees (SD = 700.8) had a mean age of 41.5 years (SD = 5.2). Measures of sleep duration included self-report from a general questionnaire (n = 12, 66.6%), self-report based on Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (n = 4, 22.2%), and self-report and actigraphy combined (n = 5, 27.7%). Studies most commonly included sleep hygiene (35.0%), yoga (25.0%), physical activity (10.0%), and cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia (10.0%) interventions. Across the interventions, 9 different behavior change techniques (BCTs) were utilized; the majority of interventions used 3 or fewer BCTs, while 1 intervention utilized 4 BCTs. Study quality, on average, was 68.9% (SD = 11.1). Half of the studies found workplace-based health promotion program exposure was associated with a desired increase in mean nightly sleep duration (n = 10, 50.0%).
CONCLUSIONS: Our study findings suggest health promotion programs may be helpful for increasing employee sleep duration and subsequent daytime performance.